100 Years of Excellence: A CDM Timeline
William J. Gies, PhD, Joins Columbia University
William J. Gies, PhD, the future guiding light for the Columbia University Dental School, joins the Columbia University faculty. He is 26 years old. At Columbia, his research on the causes of dental caries leads him to meet leading dental practitioners in New York, who he will work with to found the Columbia University Dental School.
Founding Document is Prepared
Columbia University publishes a proposal for the establishment of a dental school, submitted by a group of prominent New York dentists, physicians, and scientists. "A Dental School on University Lines" sets forth the enduring principles that general health and oral health are closely related and that the school of dentistry should have close ties with the medical school.
Columbia University Dental School is Established
Columbia University trustees establish the Columbia University Dental School retroactively to September 17, 1916. The school is co-located with the College of Physicians and Surgeons on 59th Street. Two students enroll. Later that year the New York Post-graduate School of Dentistry and the New York School of Dental Hygiene are merged into the dental school.
Dental School Entry Requirements Change
The Columbia University Dental School becomes the first dental school in the nation to require two years of prerequisite college preparation as an entry requirement. This requirement affects enrollment of women in particular, because few women attend college at this time.
William J. Gies, PhD, Establishes the Journal of Dental Research
The journal enhances the research mission of dental schools across the nation.
Anna Hughes, DMD, Becomes Director of Dental Hygiene
Dr. Hughes is a champion of preventive dentistry: "The value of a clean mouth as a vital factor in maintaining a healthy body is now universally recognized, and as a result regular and thorough prophylactic treatments have become of constantly increasing importance..."
First DDS Degree Awarded
Joseph Schroff becomes the first recipient of a Columbia DDS degree. He has also earned an MD degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He goes on to serve on the dental school faculty for many years.
American Association of Dental Schools is Formed
William J. Gies, PhD, proposes the formation of the American Association of Dental Schools by bringing together several separate entities. It endures as the voice of dental education and is now known as the American Dental Education Association (ADEA), with a foundation named for William J. Gies, PhD.
School Merges With the College of Dental and Oral Surgery of New York
The Columbia University Dental School changes its name to the School of Dental and Oral Surgery (SDOS) as a result of a merger with the College of Dental and Oral Surgery of New York (established 1892). The two buildings the College occupies on East 34th and 35th Street become Columbia University property. Students take basic science classes in the morning on 59th Street and then walk down to 34th and 35th Street for dental technique classes.
William J. Gies, PhD, Publishes Landmark Report
Dental Education in the United States and Canada is published by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. It contains 250 pages of text and more than 400 pages of appendices, including descriptions and evaluations of existing dental schools, each of which Dr. Gies visited during 5 years of research. He uses the Columbia school as the model for the future of all dental schools.Dental Education in the United States and Canada remains a seminal piece of research within dentistry.
Alfred Owre, DMD, MD, Becomes Dean
Dr. Owre is recruited from the University of Minnesota. He brings 17 faculty members from Minnesota to join him at Columbia. Dr. Owre's vision of rigorous education fits in well with the School of Dental and Oral Surgery, but many of his ideas regarding the structure of dentistry as a profession are considered controversial. Resistance to his ideas grows, leading to a leave of absence in 1933.
Seymour Lipton Graduates
Seymour Lipton goes on to become a leading American abstract sculptor. His work is represented by many New York galleries and he receives major corporate commissions. His sculptures are exhibited in museums, including the Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
The School of Dental and Oral Surgery Moves to 168th Street
SDOS moves into the top three floors of the Vanderbilt Clinic Building on 168th Street. The College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Presbyterian Hospital also move uptown, forming the first complete medical center in the country.
Herbert Ferber Graduates
Herbert Ferber, known in the dental world as Dr. Herbert Silvers, goes on to become a world renowned abstract expressionist sculptor. He is credited with creating one of the first environmental sculptures, in 1960, that viewers experience by walking through it. His work is exhibited in many museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum. In the early 1970's, the American Dental Association commissions a sculpture for its headquarters, which it later donates to the City of Chicago.
Willard Rappleye, MD, Becomes Dean
Dr. Rappleye, Dean of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, takes on the additional role of Dean of the dental school. He serves as Dean of both schools for the next 25 years. Dr. Rappleye appoints Dr. Arthur T. Rowe, the head of Prosthetics, as Associate Dean to carry out day-to-day operations. He successively appoints Houghton Holiday, Bion East, Maurice Hickey, and Gilbert Smith (who later becomes dean) as associate deans throughout his tenure.
2 Faculty Members Are Murdered
Victor Koussow, a quarrelsome school laboratory technician, fatally shoots Associate Dean Arthur Rowe and Dr. Paul Wiberg, and injures one other faculty member. He commits suicide as police arrive at the Medical Center.
School Formally Merges Into the Faculty of Medicine
The school becomes part of the Faculty of Medicine. This leads to controversy with the Council on Dental Education, the accrediting agency.
First Postdoctoral Candidates Graduate
SDOS issues postdoctoral certificates in four specialty areas: oral surgery, general dentistry, periodontics (one of the first such programs in the U.S.), and orthodontics, a program that dates back to 1917.
Frances Stoll, RDH, BS, Becomes Director of Dental Hygiene
The Bachelor of Science degree is approved by the University for the graduates of the dental hygiene program.
Pedodontics Postdoctoral Specialty Program is Established
Now called Pediatric Dentistry, the postdoctoral Pedodontics program is established by Ewing Cleveland McBeath, DDS, MD. It is one of the earliest such programs in the world.
Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Degree is Approved by the University
Frances Stoll, Director of the Dental Hygiene program, proposes and the University approves, the Master of Science in Dental Hygiene program for graduates who wish to pursue a career in academia.
SDOS Separates From the Faculty of Medicine
The University approves a separate faculty, the Faculty of Dental and Oral Surgery. The associate dean’s position under the former arrangement is restored to dean. Gilbert Smith becomes the Dean of SDOS.
Patricia McLean, RDH, MA, Becomes Director of the Dental Hygiene Program
She serves for 10 years and retires as an assistant dean.
Melvin Moss, DDS, PhD, Becomes Dean
A professor in the department of anatomy, he recruits new full time faculty and strengthens the research mission of the school.
New DDS Curriculum is Introduced
The DDS curriculum is revised to include clinic observation in the second year, small group modes of instruction, and electives in the fourth year. Coursework and research in periodontics, growth and development, and prevention is strengthened through new faculty appointments.
Edward Zegarelli, DDS, Becomes Dean
Dr. Zegarelli, an eminent oral pathologist and SDOS graduate in 1941, serves as Dean from 1973 until he retires in 1978. By the time he retires, he will have spent his entire professional career on the faculty of SDOS.
Vanderbilt Clinic is Renovated
SDOS facilities on Vanderbilt Clinic floors 7, 8, and 9 undergo a total renovation with modern operatories and new equipment.
Dona Wayman, BS, MS, EdD, Becomes Director of the Dental Hygiene Program
Dr. Wayman comes to the position after completing 3 degrees at Columbia, including a doctorate in education in conjunction with Teachers College.
Allan J. Formicola, DDS, MS, Becomes Dean
Dr. Formicola is the first dean in 50 years to be appointed from outside the faculty. He has previously served as Acting Dean at the New Jersey Dental School and on the faculties of the University of Alabama and Georgetown University. He serves as Dean of SDOS for 23 years.
MD-Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Program is Established
Steven Roser, DMD, MD (left in photo) is appointed director of the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. He establishes the joint MD-Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery program. It is the 7th such program in the nation and is established between the SDOS, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the Presbyterian Hospital.
Dental Hygiene Program Closes
As community colleges across the country establish 2-year dental hygiene programs, enrollment of students in university programs drops precipitously. Columbia decides to close its program.
Irwin Mandel, DDS, is Awarded the ADA Gold Medal For Research Excellence
Dr. Mandel, Professor of Dentistry and Associate Dean for Research, is the first person to receive this American Dental Association award. He is known for establishing the first Division of Preventive Dentistry at Columbia, and he is world-renowned for his research on saliva.
SDOS Receives $1 Million Grant
The Pew Charitable Trusts awards SDOS $1 million to implement far-reaching changes in curriculum. Students gain opportunities for electives and joint degrees with School of Public Health and the School of Business.
Harlem Hospital-SDOS Special Postdoctoral Residency Program is Established
The program is established to educate underrepresented minority residents in the dental specialties. 23 residents from Harlem Hospital complete specialty programs in fields such as periodontics, endodontics, orthodontics and pediatric dentistry. Graduates become faculty members at Columbia, staff at Harlem Hospital, and practitioners in their specialty fields.
Alumna Publishes Best Selling Book, Having Our Say
Elizabeth (Bessie) Delany, a graduate of SDOS in 1923, publishes a book of life stories with her sister Sarah (Sadie) Delany, a graduate of Teachers College. The book recounts stories from the lives of these two extraordinary African-American women who grew up in post-Reconstruction South and lived in New York City during the Harlem Renaissance. The book includes Bessie's stories of breaking barriers to become a dentist.
Community DentCare is Launched
SDOS establishes the Community DentCare network to provide care in public schools and Head Start centers. A grant of $1 million is provided by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation to assist the effort.
Northern Manhattan Community Voices Collaborative is Established
SDOS is funded with a $4.5 million grant by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to establish the Northern Manhattan Community Voices Collaborative, forming a collaborative of 35 community-based organizations and the Columbia University Medical Center to build health promotion and disease prevention programs.
SDOS becomes National Program Office for $26 Million Project
SDOS is selected by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as the National Program Office for the Pipeline, Profession & Practice: Community-Based Dental Education demonstration project, the largest foundation initiative in dentistry ever funded. The W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the California Endowment also provide funds for this project. The ten-year project funds 23 dental schools to implement programs for students to study and treat patients in community clinics and encourages schools to increase underrepresented minority student applications and enrollment.
Ira Lamster, DMD, MMSc, Becomes Dean
Formerly Vice Dean of SDOS and Director of the Division of Periodontics, Dr. Lamster serves as dean from 2001 to 2013. Dr. Lamster proposes to change the name of the school from the School of Dental and Oral Surgery (SDOS) to the College of Dental Medicine (CDM) to reflect changes in the way dentistry is practiced.
ElderSmile Program is Launched
SDOS establishes the ElderSmile program to bring attention to the oral health needs of the elderly. Care is provided at the Washington Houses for the Elderly and the Isabella Geriatric Center.
SDOS Becomes the College of Dental Medicine
The Board of Trustees approves the school's name change to the College of Dental Medicine. The new name better reflects its comprehensive biomedical approach in its missions.
School receives prestigious ADEA Gies Award
The College of Dental Medicine receives the American Dental Education Association William J. Gies Foundation award for Outstanding Vision by an Academic Dental Institution.
Dental Research Complex Constructed
A major new research complex is constructed on the 12th Floor of the Vanderbilt Clinic building, permitting the dental school to recruit new research faculty and expand its research program.
DDS-MA Program With Teachers College is Established
Roseanna Graham, DDS, becomes the first graduate of this dual degree program. She goes on to earn a PhD in science education, also a first. Dr. Graham joins the College of Dental Medicine faculty full time.
Christian Stohler, DMD, DrMedDent, Becomes Dean
Dr. Stohler comes from the University of Maryland School of Dentistry, where he served as Dean for 10 years before arriving at Columbia. Dean Stohler oversees the expansion of the dental school's clinic space onto the Vanderbilt Clinic building's 5th floor, increasing clinic space by 25%.
School Receives Its Second William J. Gies Foundation Award
The College of Dental Medicine is awarded a second American Dental Education Gies Foundation Award for Outstanding Achievement by an Academic Dental Institution for its Community DentCare program. (Photo shows opening of a public school clinic site.)
School Receives HEED Award
The College of Dental Medicine is awarded a Higher Education Excellence in Diversity Award (HEED) for outstanding commitment to diversity and inclusion. It is the first dental school in the nation to win such an award. It is Dr. Dennis Mitchell who established the Office of Diversity Affairs at the College of Dental Medicine, and he was appointed the Vice Provost for Faculty Diversity and Inclusion for Columbia University.
School Celebrates Its 100th Anniversary
The College of Dental Medicine celebrates its first 100 years. A comprehensive history book is written by Allan J. Formicola, Dean Emeritus, and is published by Columbia University Press. The College anticipates moving forward in an electronic age.